However, over the course of the 17th century their status gradually shifted so that more and more became slaves. Charging across the river under cover of artillery fire, the Scots swiftly put the English infantry to flight. Upper class girls (and sometimes boys) were taught by tutors. Many long-standing problems were resolved by the treaty. At the top of 17th century society were the nobility. Plague broke out in London in 1603, 1636 and in 1665. In December, it was confirmed by an act of parliament, becoming the 'Bill of Rights'. Within four days, two-thirds of the city had been destroyed and 65,000 people were homeless. Both were humiliating failures. Spain ceded Florida to Britain. As Charles I's army advanced on London from the Welsh Marches, its path was blocked by parliament's army under Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, at Edgehill in Warwickshire. The causes included political disputes and increasing competition from merchant shipping. Although parliament had initially managed to gain control of almost all of southern England, in October 1642 some 10,000 Cornishmen rose up in arms for Charles I and chased parliament's few local supporters across the River Tamar. However, you had to pay to be connected to the supply. Many English royalists came in to support him, but in a hard-fought battle at Worcester, the Parliamentarian commander Oliver Cromwell defeated the young king's army. Furthermore, there was no toleration in matters of religion. Bob Harris, "The Anglo Scottish Treaty of Union, 1707 in 2007: Defending the Revolution, Defeating the Jacobites". Men were now clean shaven and they wore wigs. The loss of the United States, at the time Britain's most populous colony, is seen by historians as the event defining the transition between the "first" and "second" empires,[51] in which Britain shifted its attention away from the Americas to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa. Imprisoned for a time in Loch Leven Castle, she eventually escaped and attempted to regain the throne by force. Britain maintained a relatively large and expensive Royal Navy, along with a small standing army. In 1708 a slave could be bought in Africa for £5, and sold in the West Indies for £20. By the end of the 16th century, there were several different English bibles in circulation and the church authorities felt a definitive version was needed. Director: Ben Wheatley | Stars: Julian Barratt, Peter Ferdinando, Richard Glover, Ryan Pope. The eventual Reformation of the Scottish Church followed a brief civil war in 1559–60, in which English intervention on the Protestant side was decisive. Meanwhile, industries such as glass, brick making, iron, and coal mining expanded rapidly. However he and his son the "Old Pretender" (1688–1766) claimed to be the legitimate kings, and had the support of important elements in England, as well as King Louis XIV in France. By it, Louis promised to give Charles money (so he was no longer dependent on parliament). Furthermore new types of furniture were introduced in Stuart England. The Jacobite troops were routed and James retreated to France soon afterwards, earning himself the Irish nickname 'Séamus á Chaca' ('James the Sh*t'). [35][36] British exports soared from £6.5 million in 1700, to £14.7 million in 1760 and £43.2 million in 1800. Other cultural historians have countered that, regardless of whether the name "renaissance" is apt, there was undeniably an artistic flowering in England under the Tudor monarchs, culminating in Shakespeare and his contemporaries. 'Postmodernism gone mad': is academia to blame for cancel culture? In the 1680s the first real armchairs appeared. In an atmosphere of greater religious tolerance and lack of censorship during the war, radical political and religious ideas flourished. The execution of a number of Protestant preachers, most notably the Lutheran influenced Patrick Hamilton in 1528 and later the proto-Calvinist George Wishart in 1546 who was burnt at the stake in St. Andrews by Cardinal Beaton for heresy, did nothing to stem the growth of these ideas. The 17th century was a period of unceasing disturbance and violent storms, no less in literature than in politics and society. The great architect Christopher Wren 1632-1723 designed many buildings including the most famous St Paul's Cathedral. However Richard was a shy, unambitious man and he resigned in May 1659. Each time it killed a significant part of the population but each time London recovered. He returned two years later with a group of settlers and Barbados was developed into a sugar plantation economy using at first indentured servants and then slaves captured in West Africa. In 1627 an expedition was sent to La Rochelle in France. Anyone who refused to work was whipped and, after 1610, they could be placed in a house of correction. In the early 17th century a piped water supply was created. POOR PEOPLE'S HOMES IN 17TH CENTURY ENGLAND. Their furniture, such as it was, remained very plain and basic. Gen. George Monck, a former supporter of Cromwell, led the movement for a royal restoration. The Dutch gained domination of sea trading routes until 1713. In 1687 he went further and issued a Declaration of Indulgence suspending all laws against Catholics and Protestant non-Anglicans. Despite James II's defeat in Ireland, Jacobite sympathies remained strong in the Scottish Highlands.