Initial results from areas around the capital showed that Salinas was losing badly to the opposition leader Cuauhtemoc Cardenas. In an autobiography that began circulating in Mexico this week, de la Madrid sheds more light on that dark night in Mexico’s history. A member of the PRI, his victory in the 1988 elections was a result of interference from the Guadalajara cartel. Political analysts and historians have described that election as one of the most egregious examples of the fraud that allowed the Institutional Revolutionary Party to control this country for more than seven decades, and the beginning of the end of its authoritarian rule. President Miguel de la Madrid governed Mexico for most of the 1980s, through one of its most painful economic crises, a devastating earthquake and a period of diplomatic tensions with the United States. This paper investigates the opportunities for non-democratic regimes to rely on fraud by documenting the alteration of vote tallies during the 1988 presidential election in Mexico. In particular, I study how the alteration of vote returns came after an electoral reform that …  A 2019 study in the American Political Science Review found "evidence of blatant alterations" in approximately one third of the tallies in the election. WARNING: The following contains spoilers for Season 2 of Narcos: Mexico, now streaming on Netflix.. Narcos: Mexico's second season throws Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo (Diego Luna) into a corner as he finds himself out of his depth while trying to assert dominance over Pablo Escobar's Colombian cartel. Despite this, in order to get a favourable rating from the United States to establish a trade deal that would benefit the Mexican businessmen who were his political donors, he authorized the arrest of Guadalajara cartel leader Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo in April 1989.  One observer said, "For the ordinary citizen, it was not the network but the Mexican political system that had crashed. The public demanded returns, de la Madrid wrote. During his term (1988-1994), with the support of two US administrations (Bush and Clinton), Mexican drug trafficking organizations surpassed their counterparts in Colombia in this multi-billion dollar industry. This page was last edited on 16 September 2020, at 04:19. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. Years later, former president Miguel de la Madrid admitted in an autobiography that there was not yet any official vote count when the PRI declared Salinas as the winner. Thus began the frantic staging of a fraudulent victory.  In the Chamber of Deputies election, the Institutional Revolutionary Party won 260 of the 500 seats, as well as winning 60 of the 64 seats in the Senate election.  Voter turnout was said to be 51.6% in the presidential election, 49.7% for the Senate elections and 49.4% for the Chamber election. But perhaps the most widely scrutinized act of his presidency came on the night in 1988 that his successor, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, was elected.