As previously discussed, the glycerol characteristic peaks were only present at the GC-MS analysis of the prepared biodiesel sample using excess methanol to oil molar ratio or at insufficient separation time conditions. 0000000016 00000 n Biodiesel production is the process of producing the biofuel, biodiesel, through the chemical reactions of transesterification and esterification. FT-IR spectrometry is a rapid and precise method for quantification of FAME. Accordingly, the flow rate of 60 mL/h is considered the optimum inlet flow rate of the reactants. The influences of transesterification process variables such as alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, volumetric flow rate, and effect of an organic cosolvent presence were optimized. 0000008885 00000 n 0000007684 00000 n Another proposed change in the process design was the use of microreactors for achieving transesterification reaction within short time. You can either carefully pour off the biodiesel or use a pump or baster to pull the biodiesel off of the glycerin. 0000007922 00000 n It was indicated from Figure 3(a) that as NaOH concentration increased above 1% significant decrease in the biodiesel yield was recorded. Both are toxic. Blender with a low-speed option. The idea of using alternative fuels has been widely spreading for many years now as a replacement for fossil fuels. <]>> The reactants feeding rates were changed over a wide range from 20 mL/h to 200 mL/h to investigate the influence of residence time on the biodiesel production process. The importance of this idea came from the large scale of utilization of fossil fuels in mechanical power generation in various sectors, like agriculture, commercial, domestic, and transport sectors, and also the fact of the continuous rise in fuels cost and their eventual vanishment [1]. ASTM International (originally known as … Pour 200 milliliters methanol (Heet) into the glass blender pitcher. The production of biodiesel from vegetable oil has been around for more than 150 years, and the approach significantly reduces several pollutants associated with burning fossil fuels. If you are going to be running the engine at a temperature lower than 55 degrees Fahrenheit (13 degrees C), you should mix biodiesel with petroleum diesel. x�b```�=��� ce`a����Ƞ |��M#���g�Z���g�غ�����DV����8�`M��t��#���|>�+��[x,Ѵ��s���kf>�<1Ma�>�}J�`��@��y�bRR��������`.�8���, Pd`��HK��D΂u�L��{.�h�2Tronb?p���l��-��,�Zdy3L�cX���*�P�0�5k2�0��ķ ��M The mechanism of transesterification shows some challenges regarding this process, starting from the limitation of reaction rate by mass transfer between the immiscible oil and alcohol besides the reversibility of the transesterification itself which limits the conversion and consequently increases the reaction time and cost [4]. At the KM mixer outlet the product is collected after reaching steady state in a beaker containing appropriate amount of acetic acid to neutralize the excess alkaline catalyst and stop the reaction. The identified FAMEs were verified by retention time data and mass fragmentation pattern from previous studies [21]. The KM mixer that includes the process reactants was maintained at specific water bath temperature 70°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1.1 Background of biodiesel For diesel engines, vegetable oils are the renewable alternative fuels.