We are also working on an online class about climate change.  Solar irradiance has been measured directly by satellites, and indirect measurements are available from the early 1600s. Much research is in progress to better understand hown clouds change in response to climate warming, and how these changes affect climate through various feedback mechanisms. Feedback mechanisms are factors which will alter the rate of a process.  Buildings will see additional electrification with the use of technologies like heat pumps, as well as continued energy efficiency improvements achieved via low energy building codes. Climate is determined by long-term (over at least... More which has an effect that then causes further climatic change. Feedback in general is the process in which changing one quantity changes a second quantity, and the change in the second quantity in turn changes the first. Really dark, black materials have an albedo of 0 (no reflection at all) if they are perfectly black and perfectly white materials have an albedo of 1.0 (total reflection). Multiple independently produced instrumental datasets show that the climate system is warming, with the 2009–2018 decade being 0.93 ± 0.07 °C (1.67 ± 0.13 °F) warmer than the pre-industrial baseline (1850–1900). Clouds have an enormous impact on Earth's climate, reflecting about one-third of the total amount of sunlight that hits the Earth's atmosphere back into space.  The objective of the UNFCCC is to prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.  Photovoltaic solar and wind, in particular, have seen substantial growth and progress over the last few years, such that they are currently among the cheapest sources of new power generation. These first-round commitments expired in 2012.  Ozone acts as a greenhouse gas in the lowest layer of the atmosphere, the troposphere (as opposed to the stratospheric ozone layer). Methane is the main component of natural gas, which is is an important... More is a greenhouse gasA gas found in the earth's atmosphere that traps heat radiated from the surface of the earth, and causes the earth's temperature to rise.  More prescriptive methods that can reduce greenhouse gases include vehicle efficiency standards, renewable fuel standards, and air pollution regulations on heavy industry. This amount corresponds to 10 to 13 years of current emissions. First, CO2 dissolves in the surface water. Show: Telly, Mali. , The importance of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is underlined by Target 13.a of the Sustainable Development Goal 13 ("Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts"), one of 17 global goals to be achieved by 2030. , As the Sun is the Earth's primary energy source, changes in incoming sunlight directly affect the climate system. , The Northern Hemisphere and North Pole have warmed much faster than the South Pole and Southern Hemisphere. Droughts, rising temperatures, and extreme weather negatively impact agriculture. The greenhouse gas emission mitigation of the Montreal Protocol, an international agreement to stop emitting ozone-depleting gases, is estimated to have been more effective than that of the Kyoto Protocol, which was specifically designed to curb greenhouse gas emissions. Or, to increase chances of successful carbon dioxide removal, emissions need to be brought as close to zero as possible. – since 1980)", "The Public and Climate Change: The Summer of 1988", "An addition to AP Stylebook entry on global warming", "Climate change: The massive CO2 emitter you may not know about", "Extinction Rebellion: Climate protesters block roads", "UK Parliament declares climate change emergency", "Climate change: should we change the terminology?  The largest driver has been the emission of greenhouse gases, of which more than 90% are carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane.