What makes a satisfactory outcome for one individual may not necessarily work for another. After receiving his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Michigan, he In the simplest terms, you might be able to deliver a fine reward to someone who can build a kennel for your dog. Along with what has been learned from Herzberg and Maslow’s theories, we can take their insistence on the needs of an employee and put them in a goal-oriented context by applying Vroom’s theories. He lives together with his wife Julia Francis in Guilford in the United Kingdom. The effort will rise to meet the outcome. Management, which highlights some of the foremost contributors to management theory. This article describes Expectancy Theory by Victor Vroom in a practical way. degrees in psychology from Director of the Institution for Social and Policy Studies. was named Study Director at the university's Institute for Social Research. But if you only hand them two planks of wood and a broken screwdriver, you may as well offer them a trip around the world for all the good it will do. A native of Canada, Victor H. Vroom received his B.Sc. There is little point in a small-income business to offer a sports car as an incentive for better performance, as there is little likelihood of them delivering it. The meaning that these variables have is as follows: Valence – the importance that is placed by the individual upon the expected outcome. They have two sons, named Tristan and Trevor. corporations in the United States and abroad. To clarify, while Herzberg and Maslow make the case for motivation being something that is dependent on need, Vroom suggests that the best motivation is to concentrate on the result of work as being the ultimate goal. and M.Sc. The underlying truth in this theory is that people will do what works out best for them. He continued in that role until his move to Yale University. Does the motivation exist to complete a task well if the outcome is uninspiring? Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania and later as Professor of More effort on its own may well simply be wasted effort, if the person doing the work is using the wrong tools, is the wrong person or is working with people who have limited interest in reaching the same outcome. It is one thing to tell an individual that, should they meet their performance targets, they will be rewarded with a beneficial outcome, and another to convince them of that. Vroom's primary research was on the expectancy theory of motivation, which attempts to explain why individuals choose to follow certain courses of action and prefer certain goals or outcomes over others in organizations, particularly in decision-making and leadership. While there are a number of theories which focus on needs as a driver of motivation, Victor Vroom’s Theory of Expectancy rather thrives on the outcomes. His most well-known books are Work and Motivation, Leadership and Decision Making and The New Leadership. Expressed in more simple terms, this means that if you put in more effort, the results will be better. The three factors of the theory of expectation as set out above all have their part to play in the workplace.