Click the image to view an enlarged map of East and West Jersey. Unaware of this transaction, the royal governor of New York parceled out tracts of land in Monmouth County and at Elizabethtown (now Elizabeth) to Puritans from New England and Long Island. Do you like reading facts about Colonial New Jersey? If you choose to renew, your renewal price will always reflect the 50% discount! In 1664, England began to press its colonial claims. The northeast of New Jersey featured the mountains. Encyclopædia Britannica. "The Land: Traditional regions of the United States." The name "New Jersey" was first used in a deed in which James granted proprietorship over the area to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. Accessed 6/19/19. The colony was called New Netherland, and included parts of modern-day New York and New Jersey. "A Brief History of New Sweden in America." Facts about Colonial New Jersey 3: the natural resources. The climate, combined with fertile soil and the general geography, made New Jersey ideal for farming. Learn about royal governor William Franklin. By the time European colonists began arriving, the inhabitants of the area were the Lenni Lenape, or Delaware, Indians. Under the original two proprietors, the charter for the government of New Jersey was the Concessions and Agreements of the Lords Proprietors, which provided for religious freedom, trial by jury, and a representative assembly. As the areas where they could live and hunt shrank, different groups of Delaware migrated, eventually settling in several sites ranging from southern Ontario, Canada, to Oklahoma. West New Jersey served as a haven for persecuted English, Irish, Welsh, and Scottish Quakers. © 2019 Small Planet Communications, Inc. + Terms/Conditions + 15 Union Street, Lawrence, MA 01840 + (978) 794-2201 + planet@smplanet.com, http://www.co.cumberland.nj.us/history-of-agriculture, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/411672/New-Jersey, https://www.britannica.com/place/United-States/Traditional-regions-of-the-United-States, https://www.loc.gov/item/today-in-history/october-14/, http://www.nps.gov/history/archeology/eam/landmarks.htm, http://www.njcu.edu/programs/jchistory/About.htm, http://www.newnetherlandinstitute.org/history-and-heritage/digital-exhibitions/a-tour-of-new-netherland/delaware/fort-elfsborg/, http://www.colonialswedes.org/History/History.html, http://www.twickenham-museum.org.uk/detail.asp?q=Berkeley&imageField.x=0&imageField.y=0&ContentID=86, http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h591.html. New Jersey, along with the other Middle Colonies of New York, Pennsylvania and Delaware, had less severe winters than the New England colonies and cooler summers than the Southern colonies. Read Afro-Americans in New Jersey: a short history. When Byllinge went bankrupt in 1676, his creditors, which included Penn, took control of his share under a deed which divided the colony in half — West New Jersey (Berkeley's portion, now owned by Penn and his fellow Quakers) and East New Jersey (Carteret's portion). All of these people, along with Swedes, Scots, Irish, Germans, and French Huguenots, gave New Jersey greater cultural diversity than any other area, although this diversity contributed to New Jersey's persistent lack of cohesiveness and identity. Charles II gave the region between New England and Maryland to his brother, the Duke of York (later King James II), which was renamed New York. The New Jersey Colony was not dominated by the Puritans like in the New England Colonies and had religious tolerance and freedom for its settlers. It is not known exactly how many Delaware lived in the region when European colonists started arriving. New Netherland was renamed New Jersey and New Amsterdam was renamed New York. There were various products manufactured from iron ore in New Jersey. By the time the two New Jersey proprietorships were united as a royal colony, a tradition of self-government had been established. Settlements were sparse and scattered, yet New Jersey's highways were the best in the colonies due to the area's location between New York and Philadelphia, and between the northern and southern colonies. East New Jersey, largely owned by the Scottish partners of Carteret's heirs, set up huge estates, imported several hundred indentured servants, and refused to sell land to independent farmers. However, the colony continued to grow. This land attracted European colonists. Although King Charles originally gave the region to his brother, the Duke of York, eventually, he decided to divide the region and gave the land between the Hudson and Delaware River (New Jersey) to two of his friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.