[26], At the time of its abolition, the European Community pillar covered the following areas;[16]. The formal start to the European Union was the establishment of a ‘common market’ for coal and steel in six west European countries. [7], The Treaties of Rome had stated that the European Parliament must be directly elected, however this required the Council to agree on a common voting system first. The resulting communities were the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM or sometimes EAEC). Negotiations began in 1970 under the pro-European UK government of Edward Heath, who had to deal with disagreements relating to the Common Agricultural Policy and the UK's relationship with the Commonwealth of Nations. Upon the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the EEC was renamed the European Community to reflect that it covered a wider range than economic policy. The Court of Justice of the European Communities was the highest court of on matters of Community law and was composed of one judge per state with a president elected from among them. In the European Parliament, members are allocated a set number seats related to their population, however these (since 1979) have been directly elected and they sit according to political allegiance, not national origin. Most other institutions, including the European Court of Justice, have some form of national division of its members. The EEC (direct ancestor of the modern Community) was to create a customs union while Euratom would promote co-operation in the nuclear power sphere. Quest for a US of Europe - The role of the USA, CIA and Winston Churchill Britain was sceptical towards these initiatives. The Council procrastinated on the issue and the Parliament remained appointed,[8] French President Charles de Gaulle was particularly active in blocking the development of the Parliament, with it only being granted Budgetary powers following his resignation. There were a number of Community legislative procedures, at first there was only the consultation procedure, which meant Parliament had to be consulted, although it was often ignored. Schumann Declaration of ECSC 9 May 1950 (now known as Europe Day). It disliked many of the supranational elements in the treaties, it was worried about damaging links with Commonwealth countries and it wished to pursue a ‘one-world economic system’ policy in which sterling was a central currency. The Belgian and Luxembourgish francs were 1:1 and theoretically interchangeable as a single currency. The Treaty was signed by France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium. The Communities still had independent personalities although were increasingly integrated. After the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 the pillar structure ceased to exist. The fifth institution is the European Court of Auditors, which despite its name had no judicial powers like the Court of Justice. The same industry had been used in the First World War. When West Germany ratified the Paris Treaty in 1951 the dismantling of Germany’s industries was halted. [citation needed][10] The European Council in 1984 appointed an ad hoc committee for this purpose. The Parliament's members, up-until 1980 were national MPs serving part-time in the Parliament. While the treaty for the latter was being drawn up by the Common Assembly, the ECSC parliamentary chamber, the proposed defense community was rejected by the French Parliament.